Municipal Waste Collection Treatment System for Developping Countries

By Dr. Hans Valerius
July 2006

The Author is Director at Enigma Process Technologies Corp in Muntinlupa, Philippines. His company provides engineered solutions for laundry waste, hospital waste, animal blood, animal waste, palm oil mill waste etc. → See also:

This paper outlines a conceptual solution for MSW in municipalities of about 350,000 inhabitants. The issue covers three major operation categories:

Each operation can be divided into numerous alternatives, each one is suitable for different conditions, such as: socioeconomic, climate, land availability, economical resources and others.

Transfer Plant

Transfer Plant
Transfer Plant

Landfill Design

Landfill Design
Landfill Design

This document will present one aspect of the treatment the BIOpro process. Provided that the mixed solids (or already segregated solids by the inhabitants) has been collected to the transfer plant (few can serve one municipality), the solids need then to be sorted into few basic solids sub categories.

There are quite wide techniques for classifications, among them; mechanical (conveyors, vibrators), by water or air. For instance there is a technology to collect plastic disposal bags by tiring machinery. And of course some of the oldest manual techniques that can sort the solids for, plastic, metal, paper, etc.

Treatment of various segregated solids can vary from plastic, glass, paper and metal recycling, that operation should be self sustained by the recycled products they can yield, those enterprises can operate near the transfer plant or remotely. Technology for these activities can be provided.

Non recycled solids are land filled in the municipality landfill site. The compostable or organic fracture is usually biologically or thermally broken down to energy while undergoing volume reduction. The technology is called BIOpro to recycle the organic fracture into a premium  high value soil fertilizer additive. This solution is the least expensive to build, the less land demanding and the simplest to operate. The transfer plant design and construction is not explained here, the highlight is the BIOpro System.

Segregatable Waste Materials
Paper Fibres Plastics Metals
  • Newspaper
  • Magazines
  • Phone Books
  • Cardboard
  • Boxboard/Rolls
  • Mixed Papers
  • Molded Pulp
  • Books
  • Kraft Paper
  • Spiral Wound
  • Tissue/Toweling
  • Other Paper
  • Gable Top Cartons
  • Aseptic Containers
  • PETE Soft Drinks
  • LCBO Containers
  • PETE Others
  • HDPE Bottles
  • PVC
  • LDPE & PP Bottles
  • Wide Mouth Tubs & Lids
  • PS
  • Recyclable Film
  • Non-Recyclable Film
  • Other Containers
  • Other Plastics
  • Aluminum Cans
  • Aluminum Foil Trays
  • Steel Cans
  • Other Metal
  • Clear
  • Coloured
  • Other Glass
Household Special Compostables Other Waste Materials
  • Batteries
  • Paint
  • Motor Oil
  • Flammables
  • Aerosol Cans
  • Paint Cans
  • Other HSW
  • Vegetable Food Waste
  • Animal Food Waste
  • Grass
  • Woody Yard Waste
  • Other Yard Waste
  • Animal Waste
  • Wood Ashes
  • Textiles
  • Building Renovations
  • White Goods
  • Sanitary Products
  • Rubber
  • Furniture
  • Electronics
  • Other
Budget and Figures
Solid Waste per Capita
Industrialized Countries1 - 1.5 kg/day
Developing Countries0.5 - 1 kg/day
Content Distributions
Paper and Fibers25 %
Plastic12 %
Metal4 %
Glass4.5 %
Special (Batteries, Electronic, Chemicals etc)0.8 %
Compostable31.7 %
Others22 %
BIOpro Capacity
262,000 × 0.31783,000 kg/day
Transfer Plant
0.75 kg/day capita and 350,000 pe262,000 kg/day
Area10,000 m²
Cost, depends on the sorting capacity and technology, many parts of the installation can be manufactured locally2 – 5 M US $
BIOpro Plant
Capacity80,000 kg/day
Area1,500 m²
Cost700,000 – 900,000 US $

The basis for calculation of the plant capacity are statistical figures. It is assumed that the project costs for the transfer plant would be in the range of 2-3 M US$ considering also local production of building, equipment etc.

The BIOpro Plant

Animal waste and other organic waste are a good contribution and will further improve the fertilizing value of the end product. BIOpro Technology is producing a granular, safe, clean, soil-like organic fertilizer. The BIOpro Technology process is the process of stabilizing MSW and animal manure, which blends several kinds of animal manure and organic matter from municipal waste with carefully selected alkaline admixtures (the main by-product of industrial materials), to produce a product which is clean of pathogens, safe to use and easy to handle as a soil-like material.

BIOpro Plant
BIOpro Plant

The Process

The MSWe contains more than 25% dry solid, and is blended with different animal manure containing 45% d.s. and with alkaline material to get 55% and above d.s. The advanced alkaline stabilizer slurry and alkaline mixture is heated whilst the ph exceeds 12.0. Using exothermic reactions created by the alkaline additive material, the pasteurization is achieved at temperatures of between 52° and 62°C throughout the mixture. This is stored in a uniform way to maintain the temperature for at least twelve hours. Finely, the accelerated draining of the mixture to around 60% d.s completes the process.

Although the end product of our technology is free of pathogens, viruses, and manure odors, it retains indigenous micro-flora, which is unlike other processes that use heat to sterilize sludge.
The retention of this bacterial micro flora provides increased stability to the treated organics  by the very occupancy of the ecological niche of the soil like nutrient loaded animal manure.
The BIOpro technology process meets the strict requirements of the environmental authorities throughout the world.

Organi Soil

The Product: Organi Soil

The prime advantage of cow soil & municipal waste is the fact that it is loaded with primary and secondary nutrients, as well as trace elements minerals, resulting in lower input costs to the farmer, whilst obtaining increased yields. The organi soil is odor-free, easy to handle, can be applied by using standard fertilizer or distribution machinery and may be stored outdoors for extended periods. These facts have contributed to its success in many parts of the world. Acceptability has come from farmers of a wide range of geographical areas and countries, who are growing a wide range of crops.

Advantages of using organi soil:

The Plant

There are several plants in the factory, as follows:

  1. Reception plant – for the 15% d.s. manure covered with a steel-made hangar.
  2. Manure & waste blending system – for the 15% d.s. manure and the 45% d.s. municipal waste
  3. Alkaline admixtures silos – 3 or 4 with conveying system and weighing system
  4. Mixing system including proportional system and output conveyer
  5. Pasteurizers  – metals or concrete tanks including conveying system, temperature control and an odor-release system
  6. Storage area including scale
  7. Maintenance areas
  8. Control and laboratory office
Plant Layout
Plant Layout
Process Diagram
Process Diagram


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