Estimation of Iron in Different Arums, Bananas, Vegetable and Pulses of Five Upazila of Chittagong District by Spectrophotometric Method

By Mohammad Rajaul Karim¹ ³, S. C. Bhattacharjee² and Md. Nazim Uddin¹
July 2010

The Authors are Research Fellows¹ and a Scientific Officer² at the Laboratory of the Chemical Research Division, Bangladesh Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (BCSIR), in Chittagong, Bangladesh.
³ Corresponding Author

Abstract
For the study of four different arums such as Pani kachu (Eddoe), Mukhi kachu (Taro), Man kachu (Giant taro), Ol kachu (Elephant foot aroid), four locally available bananas and five locally available vegetable as well as four different pulses of Chittagong district, five different upazila were selected. The amount of iron in twenty samples of arums was found to vary from 6.1373-134.4493 µg/g. The higest and lowest value was found in “Pani Kachu” (Patiya) and “Pani Kachu” (Boalkhali) respectively. The amount of iron in bananas varies from 5.205-79.243 µg/g. The higest and lowest value was found in Champa kala (Khagrachari) and Kanch kala (Satkania) respectively. The amount of iron in vegetable was found to vary from 8.42-184.78 µg/g. The higest and lowest value was found in “Thankuni pata” (Pahartali) and “Kolmishak” (Fatickchari) respectively. The amount of iron in pulses was found to vary from 25.29-30.81µg/g. The higest and lowest value was found in “Mash kalai” (Anowara) and “Kheshari” (Mirsharai) respectively.

Introduction

Iron1-5 is an essential element for animal body. About 0.005% of the animal body is iron and perheps two-third occurs in hemoglobin. Although present in small quantity compared to calcium, sodium, chloride and others. Iron is a necessary mineral for body function and good health. Every red blood cell in the body contains iron in its hemoglobin, the pigment that carries oxygen to the tissues from the lungs. Iron is essential to the cells of animals. In addition to this role in Hb, iron is component of Mb, a protein of muscle that functions as an oxygen carrier. Some other compounds participate in food digestion. Iron is also a component of a number of enzymes, mostly of the group participating in the transfer of hydrogen or electrons. Thus the cytochromes, cytochrome-oxidase, certain flavoproteins, xanthine oxidase and others are iron proteins. Iron dificiency cause anemia which play a role in causing illnesses such as cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. The weather of Bangladesh is suitable for the cultivation of different arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses. The people can collect iron rich arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses easily from local market in cheap rate or they can grow so much this arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses. Different arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses contain different amount of iron. In the present investigation, the amount of iron in some arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses are determined by spectrophotometric method.

Experimental Section

Material

The arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses were collected from different thanas/upazilas of Chittagong. After burning, the ashes were weighed and stored in stoppered bottles.

Reagent and Chemicals

Analytical grade chemicals were generally used for analysis and in some cases these were of reagent quality. Solution for analysis were prepared according to standard procedure. Distilled water and ethanol were used throughout the studies.

Reagent Required

Apparatus

GBC UV-visible Cintral 101/202/303/404 spectrophotometric operational manual used for measuring absorbance of the samples.

Preparation of Reagent6,7

Experimental Method6,7

A weighed portion ash of the arums, bananas, vegetables and pulses sample was dissolved in 2 mL conc.HCl in a 250 ml beaker and the solution was diluted by 100 mL of distilled water. Then took 20 mL stock solution and was added following reagent. 1 mL of 10% NH2OH.HCl solution was added to reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+.

Orthophenanthroline solution (W/V) 5 mL together with one piece of Congo red paper was added in the solution. The red color of the paper was changed in blue. NH4OH solution was added drop wise till just alkaline, i.e. Congo red paper just becomes red. Buffer (pH=5) solution (5 mL) was added. After filtration using Whatman-42 filter paper, the solution was dilluted to 100 mL with distilled water. An orange red color developed and its absorbance was measured in a spectrophotometer within 10 to 20 minutes at 515 nm. A blank solution was prepared by using the entire reagent by similar procedure and was used to make specrophotometer reading zero before measuring the absorbance of evere sample solution.

Fig 1 · Calibration graph of Fe3+
Fig 1

Preparation of Calibration Curve6

Calibration curve was prepared by using the stock solution of ferric ammonium sulphate where 1 mL solution contains 0.1 mg Fe3+. Different amount of volumes (0.1 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.3 mL, 0.4 mL, 0.5 mL, 0.6 mL, 0.7 mL, 0.8 mL, 0.9 mL, 1.0 mL) were taken in different volumetric flasks (100 mL) from stock solution. In each of the flask 50 mL distilled water and 2 mL conc. HCl were added. Then 10% NH2OH.HCl (1 mL) was added. Subsequently 5 mL orthophenanthrolines solution (W/V) and 1 piece of congored paper were added into the solution of each flask. The congored paper turned into blue. NH4OH solution was added dropwise just the solution becomes alkaline. It was denoted by the congored just returned to red. Then adding 5 mL buffer solution (pH=5) in each of the flask. The solutions were filtered through a Whatman-42 filter paper. The total volume was made just 100 mL with distilled wate. An orange red colour developed and its absorbance was measured in a spectrophotometer within 10 to 15 minutes of color development at 515 nm. By using the entire reagent except ferric ammonium sulphate solution a blank solution was prepared by similar procedure and was used to make the spectrophotometer reading zero before measuring the every standard solutions. The calibration curve was used for measuring the concentration of unknown samples.

Result and Discussion

Results of present investigation on the collected samples of different Arums, Bananas, Vegetable and Pulses are presented.

Table 1 · Amount of Fe (µg/g) in different arums in different upazilas of Chittagong
English name of arums Bengali names of arums Biological name of arums Name of the Upazila Amount of Fe (µg/g) in arums
Eddoe Pani Kachu Colocasia esculenta Patiya 134.4493
Chandanish 32.9577
Satkaniya 95.4892
Lohagara 17.3932
Boalkhali 6.1376
Taro Mukhi Kachu Typhonium trilobatum Patiya 42.6902
Chandanish 32.5095
Satkaniya 34.1522
Lohagara 24.4469
Boalkhali 23.6973
Giant taro Man kachu Alocasia indica Patiya 12.6162
Chandanish 16.093
Satkaniya 10.0027
Lohagara 26.1026
Boalkhali 13.562
Elephant foot yam Oal kKachu Amorphophallus campanulatus Patiya 55.8905
Chandanish 15.2441
Satkaniya 11.2158
Lohagara 18.8478
Boalkhali 7.076
Table 2 · Amount of Fe (µg/g) in different arums determined in India8 and Pakistan9
English name of arums Bengali names of arums Biological name of arums Amount of Fe (µg/g) in arums
Eddoe Pani Kachu Colocasia esculenta 9
Taro Mukhi Kachu Typhonium trilobatum 8
Giant taro Man kachu Alocasia indica 10
Table 3 · Amount of Fe (µg/g) in different bananas in different upazilas of Chittagong
English name of bananas Bengali names of bananas Biological name of bananas Name of the Upazila Amount of Fe (µg/g) in bananas
Lady finger banana Bangla kala Musa sapientum Hathazari 40.168
Anowara 24.333
Satkania 14.851
Lama (Bandarban) 29.502
Ramgarh (Khagrachhari) 45.435
Champa banana Champa kala Musa acuminata Hathazari 12.820
Anowara 29.421
Satkania 32.960
Lama (Bandarban) 42.303
Ramgarh (Khagrachhari) 79.243
Cavendish banana Sagor kala Musa cavendishii Hathazari 13.799
Anowara 38.267
Satkania 41.069
Lama (Bandarban) 14.305
Ramgarh (Khagrachhari) 39.992
Green banana Kanch kala Musa paradisiaca Hathazari 23.606
Anowara 11.345
Satkania 5.205
Lama (Bandarban) 8.109
Ramgarh (Khagrachhari) 11.8395
Table 4 · Amount of Fe (µg/g) in different vegetables in different upazilas of Chittagong
English name of vegetables Bengali names of vegetables Biological name of vegetables Name of the Upazila Amount of Fe (µg/g) in vegetables
Water cress Helena Shak Enhydra fluctuans Hathazari 115.99
Patia 43.39
Anowara 67.72
Pahartali 80.75
Fatickchari 61.69
Alligator weed Moloncha Shak Alternanthera philoxeroides Hathazari 78.24
Patia 33.68
Anowara 79.76
Pahartali 301.01
Fatickchari 50.32
Swamp cabbage Kolmi Shak Ipomoea aquatica Hathazari 26.13
Patia 55.39
Anowara 92.56
Pahartali 65.42
Fatickchari 8.424
Indian pennywort Thankuni Pata Centella asiatica Hathazari 111.67
Patia 76.83
Anowara 107.32
Pahartali 184.78
Fatickchari 150.06
Table 5 · Amount of Fe (µg/g) in different vegetables determined in India10 and Pakistan11
English name of vegetables Bengali names of vegetables Biological name of vegetables Amount of Fe (µg/g) in vegetables
Spear mint Pudina Mentha Spicata 9
Turnip Shalgam Brassica rapa 3
Ridged gourd Zinga Luffa acutangula 16
Wax gourd Chal kumra Benincasa hispida 8
Sponge gourd Dundul Luffa cylindrica 12
Table 6 · Amount of Fe (µg/g) in different pulses in different upazilas of Chittagong
English name of pulses Bengali names of pulses Biological name of pulses Name of the Upazila Amount of Fe (µg/g) in pulses
Black gram Mash kalai Vigna muungo Hathazari 121.5090
Anowara 250.2930
Rawzan 57.2589
Mirsharai 85.5650
Chandanaish 128.0209
Southern pea Felon Phaseolus vulgaris Hathazari 53.7504
Anowara 56.9516
Rawzan 38.49
Mirsharai 57.751
Chandanaish 55.6871
Green gram Mung Phaseolus aureus Hathazari 39.3402
Anowara 60.0696
Rawzan 66.8211
Mirsharai 54.9170
Chandanaish 48.0578
Grass pea Kheshari Lathyrus sativus Hathazari 75.8891
Anowara 206.9767
Rawzan 63.872
Mirsharai 30.8107
Chandanaish 85.9799
Table 7 · Amount of Fe (µg/g) in different pulses collected from the journals12
English name of Pulses Bengali names of Pulses Biological name of Pulses Amount of Fe (µg/g) in Pulses
Black gram Mash kalai Vigna muungo 3.50
Green gram Mung Phaseolus aureus 0.80
Southern pea Felon Phaseolus vulgaris 4.30
Grass pea Kheshari Lathyrus sativus 18.80
Lentil Masur Lens culinaris Medik 4.50

Conclusion

The deficiency of iron cause anemia. Most of the people of our country are poor. So they cannot buy rich food. The persons, who suffer from iron deficiency, can get rid of their diseases by selecting the iron-rich arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses. If they are unable to buy these iron rich arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses from the market, they can grow such arums, bananas, vegetable and pulses in their gardens or fields.

References

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